The mission was to videotape Connie Christensen teaching a Shino glazing class and Marie Gibbons teaching a class in which she is bridging pottery sculpture with alternative painting techniques. Antoinette presented a one-day demonstration in handbuilding techniques with porcelain. Artists from various artistic disciplines came from across the country to attend the demonstration.
Connie presented her first online pottery class (Faceted teapot set) with TeachinArt in April 2017. This class is loaded with information about the making of a tea set with a hand made cane handle. It serves as a perfect preparation class for the Shino workshop that will be scheduled later in 2017 or early 2018.
Over the next several weeks I will highlight some of the topics that our instructors are covering.
What is Shino glazing?
Shinos is the collective name for a group of glazes identified by thick, pinhole-like, texture, white and breaking into an orange red on the edges. These glazes appeared in Japan in the time period of Momoyama in 1568–1600. Styles associated with these glazes were Oribe and Seto ware.
In the early 20th century modern Shino glazes were developed by 2 Japanese potters, Toyozo Arakawa and Hajime Katō.
The first American Shinos were developed by a student of Warren MacKenzie. With additions of soda ash and Spodumene to the base glaze, made up from Feldspar and various types of clay, Virginia Wirt, took on a leading role in the development of these first American Shinos.
When soda ash and the high ratio of alumina to silica in these glazes are reduced and carbon is trapped during the firing process, American Shinos appear on the surface, providing stoneware and porcelain pottery with rich colors ranging from white, to grayish beige and gold to orange and black. These glazes are food safe.
Under certain firing conditions, the soda ash causes carbon to be trapped in the glaze, creating the characteristic grey spots or patches on the glaze surface. Depending how these glazes are controlled, bright matt oranges will be juxtaposed by smooth shimmering beige's.
This vibrant glaze family only needs a good artist, an understanding of the material and a few tools to bring out an array of appearances. It is amazing to see how a skilled Shino artist can use one glaze to produce a landscape of different colors.
Hank Murrow is a potter from Oregon specializing in wood fire, Shino and Anagama firing. The image on the left is a salad bowl by Hank with the following recipe. Shino reduced early @ cone 012, matured at cone 11, and soaked in oxidation at 1850F during the cooling for 4 hours. Neph Sye 56%, Low Melt Spodumene(Tanco) 18%, 6Tile kaolin 26%, Vee Gum T 1.5%. (photo and recipe generously provided by Hank Murrow)
Connie Christensen studied under Malcolm Davis, who became legendary for his use of Shino glazes. She was eager to learn more about the behavior of Shinos and found inspiration in some of the articles written by Pete Pinnell.
Triggered by this knowledge she started with extensive research on Shino glazing and found interesting ways of creating landscapes and different coloring techniques.
Gas firing with Shino glazes became and important replacement for her previous practices of wood firing.
This online workshop by Connie Christensen is a perfect place for anyone who wants to understand and use Shino glazes.
Below are some of the early American Shino recipes developed by Virginia Wirt and provided by her brother Tom to the Clayart pottery forum (Potters.org)
Kona F4 42.2%
Soda Ash 9.6
Nepheline Syenite 37.5
Kona F4 21.1 *
OM4 Ball 12.5
Soda Ash 4.8
F-4 Soda Feldspar 9.3
Nepheline Syenite 38.6
Red Art 5.7
Photo credit Koos Badenhorst.